The economic recovery is nicely timed for the vinyl liner and package pool business. One reason: Many pools are old enough to need maintenance and new liners. Another: Homeowners are ready and able to invest in enhancements that make their pools into great backyard recreation destinations, while manufacturers oblige with products designed to meet their expectations.
Overall, vinyl liner and package pool manufacturers anticipate a stable, possibly up-trending market for 2016. Many are projecting 5 percent to as much as 7 or 10 percent growth.This results from a combination of economic and usage trends.Since vinyl liners typically require replacement every seven to 10 years, pools installed between 2005 and 2007 are on tap for new liners.
Hydration and Health
Water is the major component of the human body. On average, it represents 60% of an adult’s body weight. Click each of these headings to explore how hydration and dehydration can affect health through the different stages of life.
Can dehydration influence mood?
The brain is mostly made of water - so how does dehydration affect mood, fatigue and concentration?
Can drinking more water reduce the risk of kidney stones?
Kidney diseases such as kidney stones are a common, and often painful, problem. How can water intake help to prevent kidney stones?
Can drinking water contribute to the prevention of obesity?
The quality and quantity of daily fluid intake can affect daily calorific intake. How does the calorie content of water compare to other drinks?
Healthy hydration for cognition and mood state
Our brain is made of 75% water. It seems therefore logical that dehydration may have an impact on cognitive functions and mood.
Several studies, performed in healthy persons, looked at the effects of induced dehydration on cognitive performance and motor function: fatigue, mood, choice reaction time, short- and long-term memory, attention, arithmetics… It appears that a 2% dehydration is sufficient to impair functions and performances.1,2 Some studies have suggested that adverse effects may even be present at 1% dehydration.3,4
Young children and adolescents, in particular, may be at risk of impaired cognitive function (concentration, alertness and short-term memory) due to insufficient hydration.5,6
Institute of Medicine (IOM). Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. Washington, DC: National Academies Press,2004.
EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary reference values for water. EFSA Journal. 2010; 8:1459-507. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1459. Available online: www.efsa.europa.eu
Gopinathan PM, Pichan G, Sharma VM. Role of dehydration in heat stress-induced variations in mental performance. Arch Env Health. 1998;43:15–7.
Lieberman HR. Hydration and Cognition: A Critical Review and Recommendations for Future Research. J Am CollNutr. 2007;26:S555-61.
EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to water and maintenance of normal physical and cognitive function (ID 1102, 1209, 1294, 1331), maintenance of normal thermoregulation (ID 1208) and “basic requirement of all living things” (ID 1207) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA Journal. 2011;9:2075-91. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2011.2075. Available online: www.efsa.europa.eu/efsajournal
D'Anci KE, Constant F, Rosenberg IH. Hydration and cognitive function in children. Nutr Rev. 2006;64:457-64.
- See more at: http://www.h4hinitiative.com/hydration-health/healthy-hydration-cognition-and-mood-state#sthash.oyP83WT7.dpuf
Water intake and kidney stones
Kidney stones, also called urolithiasis, are a common pathology affecting about 10% of the population in developed countries at least once in an individual’s lifetime. Recent trends show an increase in stone prevalence.
The role of dietary habits, including fluid intake, has a great implication in stone development.
A cross section of a kidney
Hydration: A well recognized role in recurrence prevention
The role of increased fluid intake as a means of preventing recurrence of kidney stones is well recognized today. In fact, it has been used since the time of Hippocrates.
Adequate fluid intake helps to decrease concentrations of substances involved in stone formation thus reducing their saturation degree in urine (a necessary condition for crystallization, and a first step towards stone formation).
Many studies have shown the beneficial effects of improved fluid intake (and consequently urine volume) on stone recurrence prevention.
The strongest scientific evidence certainly comes from a five-year randomized controlled trial conducted amongst patients recruited directly after their first idiopathic calcium stone episode. This study showed that recommending patients to increase fluid intakes to achieve a urine volume superior to 2L per day resulted in reduced kidney stone recurrence compared to a group without specific advice.1
The European Association of Urology2 recommends increasing fluid intake independent of the type of stones to achieve a urine volume of more than 2L a day, on top of other dietary and lifestyle advice
Is there a role of hydration for first stone prevention?
Several studies suggest that chronic dehydration from different causes such as working in a hot environment or physical exertion increases the risk of stone incidence.3-7 Data suggests also that stone diseases occur more frequently in geographic areas with a hot climate. In countries such as Saudi Arabia, over 20% of the population develop renal stones whereas the risk of the disease is only 12 to 13% in North America and 5 to 10 % in Europe.8 There is also a seasonal variation of stone incidence, with higher rates in summer.9-10
In addition, some studies show the relationship between fluid intake and stone risk in the healthy population:
In two large observational studies, total fluid intake was significantly and negatively associated with the risk of renal stones.11-12
A three-year intervention controlled trial tested the preventive effect of an educational program on adequate fluid intake in a population living in a hot climate compared to a similar population who did not receive any advice. Results showed that the population with the educational program had a higher urine volume and a lower stone incidence than the population who were not advised on fluid intake.13
It has also recently been shown that an additional water intake of 1.3 L could decrease the theoretical risk of crystallization, the first step of stone formation, in the urine of a healthy population as measured by the Tiselius crystallization risk index.14
Nevertheless, further studies are needed to confirm the role of adequate fluid intake for first stone prevention.
Borghi L, Meschi T, Amato F, Briganti A, Novarini A, Giannini A. Urinary volume, water and recurrences in idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis: a 5-year randomized prospective study. J Urol. 1996;155:839-43.
Türk C, Knoll T, Petrik A, Sarica K, Straub M, Seitz C. Guidelines on Urolithiasis, European Association of Urology 2011.
Embon OM, Rose GA, Rosenbaum T. Chronic dehydration stone disease. Br J Urol. 1990;66:357-62.
Pin NT, Ling NY, Siang LH. Dehydration from outdoor work and urinary stones in a tropical environment. Occup Med (Lond). 1992;42:30-2.
Borghi L, Meschi T, Amato F, Novarini A, Romanelli A, Cigala F. Hot occupation and nephrolithiasis. J Urol. 1993;150:1757-60.
Chang MA, Goldfarb DS. Occupational risk for nephrolithiasis and bladder dysfunction in a chauffeur. Urol Res. 2004;32:41-3.
Olapade-Olaopa EO, Agunloye A, Ogunlana DI, Owoaje ET, Marinho T. Chronic dehydration and symptomatic upper urinary tract stones in young adults in Ibadan, Nigeria. West Afr J Med. 2004;23:146-50.
Ferrari P, Piazza R, Ghidini N, Bisi M, Galizia G, Ferrari G. Lithiasis and riskfactors. UrolInt. 2007;79:8-15.
Baker PW, Coyle P, Bais R, Rofe AM. Influence of season, age, and sex on renal stone formation in South Australia. Med J Aust. 1993;159:390-2.
Al-Hadramy MS. Seasonal variations of urinary stone colic in Arabia. J Pak Med Assoc. 1997;47:281-4.
Taylor EN, Stampfer MJ, Curhan GC. Dietary factors and the risk of incident kidney stones in men: new insights after 14 years of follow-up. J AmSocNephrol. 2004;15:3225-32.
Curhan GC, Willett WC, Knight EL, Stampfer MJ. Dietary factors and the risk of incident kidney stones in younger women: Nurses' Health Study II. ArchInternMed. 2004;164:885-91.
Frank M, De Vries A. Prevention of urolithiasis. Education to adequate fluid intake in a new town situated in the Judean Desert Mountains. ArchEnvironHealth. 1966;13:625-30.
De La Guéronnière V, Le Bellego L., Buendia Jimenez I, Dohein O, Tack I, Daudon M. Increasing water intake by 2 liters reduces crystallization risk indexes in healthy subjects. ArchItalUrolAndrol. 2011;83:43-50.